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From Wikipedia, free encyclopedia

BitTorrent is a protocol that allows you to quickly download files using a minimum amount of bandwidth available for your Internet connection. Unlike other download methods, BitTorrent maximizes the transfer rate by dividing the file into bits and downloading those bits in turn from the users who already have it. This process can make bulky files downloadable at much higher speeds than is possible with similar protocols.

How BitTorrent works

The BitTorrent protocol divides the file into tiny fragments, usually in the order of a quarter of a megabyte (256 KB), but the larger the file size, the larger the fragment size will increase. Usually a file of 4.37 GB will be divided into 4 MB fragments (4096 KB). Users download the missing snippets from those who have already downloaded them, making available to others the fragments they already have. The protocol is smart enough to choose the most effective network connections for the search fragments. A group of users who download a file at one time is generally named "swarm". In order to increase the global roaming efficiency, BitTorrent customers require the most rare fragments from other users; In other words the fragments that are available to the least users in an attempt to ensure homogeneity of the fragments in terms of availability and to avoid "bottlenecks".

Fragments are not downloaded in sequential order, and the original file must be reconfigured by the BitTorrent client. It is very important that a client in a swarm will start making available to the other fragments of the file before he has the complete file. Thus, anyone can eventually have the complete file, as long as there are at least one copy of each fragment in a circle, even if no user has the complete file (a complete copy of the file is called "seed"

How to Use BitTorrent

Although the back system is quite complex, downloading with BitTorrent is simple and intuitive. It starts with a .torrent file, a small description file that contains the name of the original file and its size. Anyone who wants to download a file must first have the description file and open it with a BitTorrent client. The .torrent file tells the client the address of the central tracking server, which in turn maintains a list of users downloading that file and what is the availability level of each fragment. For every available source, the client checks the blocks of data he or she needs. After downloading a block of data, it checks the integrity of that block by comparing its digital signature (obtained by a cryptographic method) with that provided by the server. If the snippet is validated, it is added to the list of available data blocks for sharing with other users.

Although BitTorrent is an acceptable protocol for a broadband user, it is less efficient for dial-up connections, where disconnections are common.
Compare with other sharing systems

The method used by BitTorrent to distribute files to the network resembles the one used by the eDonkey2000 network, but the eDonkey network nodes are more demanding due to the large number of files served, resulting in a reduction in the bandwidth available for each transfer. BitTorrent transfers are very fast because all nodes in a group focus on transferring a single file (or a collection of files that relate to each other).

A method similar to how BitTorrent works in terms of encouraging file uploading is the Participation Level introduced in KaZaA in 2002. This level of participation increased with file upload and decreased with downloading. Thus, when other users were trying to download a file from the current user, those with a higher level of attendance had priority, while others were put on a waiting list. This system can be viewed as a pyramid in which the most uploaded are near the top, and the others, progressively, on the lower levels. However, unfortunately, the system adopted by KaZaA is inefficient and easy to cheat - the level of participation is reported by the client application, which can be set to report a favorable (but not true) level.

Developments in the future

The BitTorrent protocol is still in development, so there is the possibility of adding new features to improve its performance (and so great) and efficiency.


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